Outdoor-to-indoor office MIMO measurements and analysis at 5.2 GHz
Publikation/Tidskrift/Serie: IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology
The outdoor-to-indoor wireless propagation channel is of interest for cellular and wireless LAN applications. This paper presents measurement results and analysis based on our multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) measurement campaign, which is one of the first to characterize the outdoor-to-indoor channel. Measurements were performed at 5.2 GHz; the receiver was placed indoors at 53 different locations in an office building, the transmitter was placed at three base station positions on a nearby rooftop. We report on the root mean square (RMS) angular spread, building penetration, and other statistical parameters characterizing the channel. Our analysis is focused on three MIMO channel assumptions often used in stochastic models. (i) It is commonly assumed that the channel matrix can be represented as a sum of a line-of-sight (LOS) contribution and a zero-mean complex Gaussian distribution; our investigation shows that this model does not adequately represent our measurement data. (ii) It is often assumed that the Rician K-factor is equal to the power ratio of the LOS component and the other multipath components (MPCs); we show that this is not the case and we highlight the difference between the Ricean K-factor often associated with LOS channels, and a similar power ratio for the estimated LOS MPC. (iii) A widespread assumption is that the full correlation matrix of the channel can be decomposed into a Kronecker product of the correlation matrices at transmit and receive array. Our investigations show that the direction-of-arrival (DOA) spectrum depends noticeably on the direction-of-departure (DOD), therefore the Kronecker model is not applicable and models with less restrictive assumptions on the channel, e.g., the Weichselberger model or the full correlation model, should be used.
- Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
- LOS power factor
- Rician K-factor
- angular dispersion
- direction of departure
- direction of arrival
- Weichselberger model
- channel sounding
- Kronecker model
- Virtual channel representation
- Radio Systems
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- ISSN: 0018-9545