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BETWEEN DARING AND DELIBERATING - 3G as a sustainability issue in Swedish spatial planning

Författare:
Publiceringsår: 2008
Språk: Engelska
Sidor: 179
Publikation/Tidskrift/Serie: MiSt Report 4
Dokumenttyp: Licentiatavhandling
Förlag: Blekinge Institute of Technology
Övrig information: Licentiate thesis in Spatial Planning. The thesis project has been a part of a study within the MiSt programme, an interdisciplinary research programme on tools for environmental assessment in strategic decision making funded by the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency.

Sammanfattning

The thesis shows how different aspects of sustainable
development have been handled or not
handled in the third generation infrastructure
development in Sweden. The difference between
the design of the 3G development - emphazising
competition, growth and regional access, based on
a strong technological optimism - and the implementation,
as the roll out struck the landscape,
including the non-handled radiation issue and the
legal changes in order to facilitate the roll out, is
discussed and analyzed.

The roll out formally started in late 2000 as the licence
allocation process, the so called beauty contest,
was finished. Four operators were to build
partly competing systems within three years, each
covering 8 860 000 persons, more than 99,98
percent of the populated areas. The Post and Telecommunications
Agency can sanction operators
not fulfilling licence conditions by a considerable
fine. The coverage by the end of the period was
between 66 and 74 percent of the promised 8 860
000, with only three remaining operators still participating.
Not until 1 December 2006 did the first
operator report the required coverage, followed
by the two remaining operators by 1 June 2007.
The municipal permit handling was blamed for the
delay, a reason that “could not have been foreseen”,
which helped the operators avoid sanctions
from the PTA. The thesis shows that a slow municipal
permit process can not explain the lack of
coverage in some areas of Sweden.

Environmental aspects were not handled at national
level but assessed locally in the building permit
handling, as well as the regional 12:6 consultations
at the County Administrations. This is why the
municipal permit process holds many of the keys
regarding environmental management and planning.
Therefore the permit processes regarding 3G
masts has been charted as they developed in time
and screened for main issues and conflicts. Public
participation can be found in the local context tied
to the legal concept of being a concerned party
in the permit process, or the 12:6 consultation.
In spite of this, the much debated radiation issue
is lifted from the participative aspects and legally
defined as not relevant.

The theoretical basis of the analysis combines
spatial planning and sociology of law, applying the
sociological concept of norms as entities controlling
action on the discussion of two different paradigms
of governance derived from planning theory.
The thesis project has been a part of a study
within the MiSt programme, an interdisciplinary
research programme on tools for environmental
assessment in strategic decision making funded by
the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency.

Supervisors: professor Lars Emmelin, School of
Planning, Blekinge Institute of Technology Karsten
Åström, professor in sociology of law, Lund University.

Disputation

Nyckelord

  • Social Sciences
  • Law and Political Science
  • Earth and Environmental Sciences
  • public participation
  • the precautionary principle
  • fear of radiation
  • strategic decision-making.
  • infrastructure development
  • sustainable development
  • sociology of law
  • spatial planning
  • sustainability issues
  • UMTS
  • 3G

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