Linoleic acid-stimulated vascular adhesion molecule-1 expression in endothelial cells depends on nuclear factor-kappaB activation.
Endothelial activation is an important step in atherogenesis. In addition to established cardiovascular risk factors, such as hypercholesterolemia, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and homocysteinemia, high plasma levels of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins may be an important cause of endothelial activation as well. Free fatty acids hydrolyzed from core triglycerides of these particles can exert both pro- and anti-inflammatory effects on the vascular wall. omega-3 fatty acids, such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), have been shown to inhibit cytokine-induced endothelial activation. In contrast, we and others have previously shown that the omega-6 fatty acid linoleate activates transcription factor nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) in endothelial cells. In this study, we show that linoleic acid stimulates vascular adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) protein and mRNA expression in cultured human endothelial cells, as assessed by immunofluorescence and Northern blotting. Release of shedded soluble VCAM-1 from cultured human endothelial cells was also increased by the addition of linoleic acid, as determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). By use of cultured rat aortic endothelial cells transfected with an IkappaB super-repressor (DeltaN2 cells), we provide evidence that NF-kappaB signalling is required in the linoleic acid-induced VCAM-1 expression in endothelial cells, whereas other transcription factors appear to be involved in the increased endothelial plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) production in response to linoleic acid. These findings suggest that diets rich in linoleic acid may be proinflammatory and thus atherogenic by activating vascular endothelial cells.
- Cell and Molecular Biology
- Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction
- Non-U.S. Gov't
- U.S. Gov't
- Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule-1/genetics/*metabolism
- Linoleic Acid/*pharmacology
- NF-kappa B/*physiology
- Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor 1/metabolism
- Fluorescent Antibody Technique
- Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay
- ISSN: 0026-0495