Increased expression of membrane type 3-matrix metalloproteinase in human atherosclerotic plaque: role of activated macrophages and inflammatory cytokines
Förlag: American Heart Association, Inc
BACKGROUND: Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are thought to play a prominent role in atherogenesis and destabilization of plaque. Pericellularly localized membrane-type (MT)-MMPs activate secreted MMPs. We investigated the hypothesis that MT3-MMP is expressed in human atherosclerotic plaques and is regulated by locally produced inflammatory cytokines and oxidized low-density lipoprotein (Ox-LDL). METHODS AND RESULTS: Expression and cellular localization of MT3-MMP in normal and atherosclerotic human coronary arteries were examined using specific antibodies. Abundant MT3-MMP expression was noted in medial smooth muscle cells (SMCs) of normal arteries. In atherosclerotic arteries, MT3-MMP expression was observed within complex plaques and colocalized with SMCs and macrophages (Mphi). Cultured human monocyte-derived Mphi constitutively expressed MT3-MMP mRNA and proteolytically active protein, as demonstrated by mRNA analyses, immunoblotting, and gelatin zymography, respectively. Ox-LDL, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, or macrophage colony-stimulating factor caused dose- and time-dependent increases in steady-state levels of MT3-MMP mRNA in cultured Mphi. This correlated with a 2- to 4-fold increase in levels of MT3-MMP immunoreactive protein and enzymatic activity in Mphi membranes. Confocal microscopy and flow cytometry confirmed induction and spatial distribution of MT3-MMP protein from intracellular domains to the Mphi plasma membrane by Ox-LDL, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, or macrophage colony-stimulating factor. CONCLUSIONS: MT3-MMP is expressed by SMCs and Mphi in human atherosclerotic plaques. Proinflammatory molecules cause a progressive increase in the expression of MT3-MMP in cultured Mphi. Our results suggest a mechanism by which inflammatory molecules could promote Mphi-mediated degradation of extracellular matrix and thereby contribute to plaque destabilization.
- Cardiac and Cardiovascular Systems
- ISSN: 1524-4539