Measurement of net ecosystem exchange, productivity and respiration in three spruce forests in Sweden shows unexpectedly large soil carbon losses
Measurement of net ecosystem exchange was made using the eddy covariance method above three forests along a north-south climatic gradient in Sweden: Flakaliden in the north, Knottasen in central and Asa in south Sweden. Data were obtained for 2 years at Flakaliden and Knottasen and for one year at Asa. The net fluxes (N-ep) were separated into their main components, total ecosystem respiration (R-t) and gross primary productivity (P-g). The maximum half-hourly net uptake during the heart of the growing season was highest in the southernmost site with -0.787 mg CO2 m(-2) s(-1) followed by Knottasen with -0.631 mg CO2 m(-2) s(-1) and Flakaliden with -0.429 mg CO2 m(-2) s(-1). The maximum respiration rates during the summer were highest in Knottasen with 0.245 mg CO2 m(-2) s(-1) while it was similar at the two other sites with 0.183 mg CO2 m(-2) s(-1). The annual N-ep ranged between uptake of -304 g C m(-2) year(-1) (Asa) and emission of 84 g C m(-2) year(-1) (Knottasen). The annual R-t and P-g ranged between 793 to 1253 g C m(-2)year(-1) and -875 to -1317 g C m(-2) year(-1), respectively. Biomass increment measurements in the footprint area of the towers in combination with the measured net ecosystem productivity were used to estimate the changes in soil carbon and it was found that the soils were losing on average 96-125 g C m(-2)year(-1). The most plausible explanation for these losses was that the studied years were much warmer than normal causing larger respiratory losses. The comparison of net primary productivity and P-g showed that ca 60% of P-g was utilized for autotrophic respiration.
- Earth and Environmental Sciences
- soil carbon
- eddy covariance
- net primary production
- ISSN: 0168-2563