High-speed stereo DPIV measurement of wakes of two bat species flying freely in a wind tunnel
Publikation/Tidskrift/Serie: Experiments In Fluids
Previous studies on wake flow visualization of live animals using DPIV have typically used low repetition rate lasers and 2D imaging. Repetition rates of around 10 Hz allow similar to 1 image per wingbeat in small birds and bats, and even fewer in insects. To accumulate data representing an entire wingbeat therefore requires the stitching-together of images captured from different wingbeats, and at different locations along the wing span for 3D-construction of wake topologies. A 200 Hz stereo DPIV system has recently been installed in the Lund University wind tunnel facility and the high-frame rate can be used to calculate all three velocity components in a cube, whose third dimension is constructed using the Taylor hypothesis. We studied two bat species differing in body size, Glossophaga soricina and Leptonycteris curasoa. Both species shed a tip vortex during the downstroke that was present well into the upstroke, and a vortex of opposite sign to the tip vortex was shed from the wing root. At the transition between upstroke/downstroke, a vortex loop was shed from each wing, inducing an upwash. Vorticity iso-surfaces confirmed the overall wake topology derived in a previous study. The measured dimensionless circulation, I"/Uc, which is proportional to a wing section lift coefficient, suggests that unsteady phenomena play a role in the aerodynamics of both species.
- Biological Sciences
- ISSN: 0723-4864