The mammalian brain in the electromagnetic fields designed by man with special reference to blood-brain barrier function, neuronal damage and possible physical mechanisms
Publikation/Tidskrift/Serie: PROGRESS OF THEORETICAL PHYSICS SUPPLEMENT
Förlag: PROGRESS THEORETICAL PHYSICS PUBLICATION OFFICE
Life oil earth was formed during billions of years, exposed to, and shaped by the original physical forces such as gravitation, cosmic irradiation, atmospheric electric fields and the terrestrial magnetism. The Schumann resonances at 7.4 Hz are all example of oscillations possibly important for life.(1)) The existing organisms are created to function in harmony with these forces. However, in the late 19th century mankind introduced the use of electricity, in the early 20th century long-wave radio and in the 1940-ies short-wave radio. High frequency RF was introduced in the 50-ies as FM and television and during the very last decades, microwaves of the modern communication society spread around the world. Today, however, one third of the world's population is owner of the microwave-producing mobile phones and an even larger number is exposed to the cordless RF emitting systems. To what; extent are all living organisms affected by these, almost everywhere present radio frequency fields? And what will be the effects of many years of continuing exposure? Since 1989 Our group has studied the effects upon the mammalian blood-brain barrier (BBB) in rats by non-thermal radio frequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF). These have been shown to cause significantly increased leak-age of the rats' own blood albumin through the BBB of exposed rats, at energy levels of 1W/kg and below, as compared to non-exposed animals in a total series of about two thousand animals.(2)-6)) One remarkable observation is the fact that the lowest energy levels, with whole-body average power densities below 10mW/kg, give rise to the most pronounced albumin leakage. If mobile communication, even at extremely low energy levels, causes the users' own albumin to leak out through the BBB, also other unwanted and toxic molecules in the blood, may leak into the brain tissue and concentrate in and damage the neurons and glial cells of the brain. In later studies we have shown that a 2-h exposure to GSM 915 MHz, at non-thermal SAB-values of 0.2, 2 and 200 mW/kg, gives rise to significant neuronal damage, seen not only 50 days after the exposure 7) but also after 28 days but not after 14 days. Albumin extravasations and uptake into neurons was enhanced after 14 clays, but not after 28.(8)) in our continued research, also the non-thermal effects oil tissue structure and memory function of long-term exposure for 13 months are studied.(9)) We have also performed microarray analysis of brains from rats exposed to short term GSM both at 1,800 MHz and at 900MHz and have found significant effects upon gene expression of membrane associated genes as compared to control animals.(10),11)) Most of our findings support that living organisms are affected by the non-thermal radio frequency fields. Some other Studies agree while others find no effects. The mechanisms by which the EMFs may alter BBB permeability are not Well Understood. At low field strengths, the effects on body temperature are negligible and thus heating effects are not involved. A change in the physicochemical characteristics of membranes has been suggested as a cause.(12)) We have performed experiments to verify a quantum mechanical model for interaction with protein-bound ions. Our results show that controlled frequency and amplitude of ELF EM fields upon spinach plasma vesicles can steer transport over the membrane.(13)) This may be a first proof of a resonance phenomenon where appropriate levels of frequency and amplitude in the right combination have the potency to communicate with the biology of membranes and transport systems. Our study has prompted Lis to elaborate on magnetic resonance models; the Ion Cyclotron Resonance (ICR) model and the Ion Parametric Resonance (IPR) Model in an attempt to explain the occurrence of resonance frequencies. This is extensively described here under the heading: Mechanisms behind the effects of electromagnetical fields upon biology. We also bring forward the concept of solitons being active in membranes and DNA/RNA-transcription as a, possible mean to understand and prove the biological effects of EMF. The Nishinomiya-Yukawa International and Interdisciplinary Symposium 2007 raised the question: What is Life? An obvious and simple answer could be: It is DNA! The DNA strand can be looked upon as an antenna resonating in the microwave band 6GHz with its harmonics and subharmonics.(14)-18)) If this holds true, the dramatic situation might exist, that all living organisms have a receptor for the newly constructed and world-wide man-made microvaves, leading to a direct effect upon the function of DNA - in concordance with our experimental findings! Our generation invented the microwave emitters. We now have in imperative obligation to further investigate the links between EMF and biology in order to prevent possible detrimental effects of the microwaves.
- Radiology, Nuclear Medicine and Medical Imaging
- Cancer and Oncology
22nd Nishinomiya-Yukawa Memorial Symposium - What is Life? The Next 100 Years of Yukawa's Dream
- ISSN: 0375-9687