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Comparison of resource efficiency of systems for management of toilet waste and organic household waste

Publiceringsår: 2003
Språk: Engelska
Sidor: 759-766
Dokumenttyp: Konferensbidrag


Using a system analysis approach compares different systems for handling and treatment of

toilet waste and organic household waste. Design issues considered are source separation of

urine, use of vacuum toilets and advanced nutrient recovery processes such as Reverse Osmosis

(RO). All of the studied systems have low emissions of eutrophy ing compounds. Other environmental

effects are mainly related to the amount of exergy used at each system. Source

separating of urine is favourable if only a moderate (50 - 70 %) recycling potential for nutrients

such as N and K is required. However, if hi gher recycling potential is required systems using

nutrient recovery processes such as RO/evaporator are probably to prefer. For vacuum sy stems,

the maximum amounts of flush water must be below 10 lit/p,d to make them reasonable

efficient in terms of exergy consumption. The low-flush systems are less sensitive to the use of

flush water in terms of exergy consumption.


  • Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
  • nutrient recovery
  • System analysis
  • simulation
  • blackwater
  • toilet wastewater
  • exergy
  • organic household waste
  • urine separation


2nd International Symposium on Ecological Sanitation

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