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Population and Living Standards, 1870-1914

  • Stephen Broadberry
  • Kevin H. O'Rourke
Publiceringsår: 2010
Språk: Engelska
Sidor: 108-129
Publikation/Tidskrift/Serie: The Cambridge Economic History of Modern Europe
Volym: Volume 2: 1870 to the Present
Dokumenttyp: Del av eller Kapitel i bok
Förlag: Cambridge University Press


This chapter provides the first all-European overview of diverse aspects of living standards in a period when industrialisation and modernity began to show up in substantial improvements in general living conditions. Most obvious is this seen in the increase of life expectancy. A substantial contribution came from the decline in infant mortality which occurred almost simultaneously over large parts of Europe, despite levels were very different. An explanation is suggested for bot the similarity in the change and the difference in levels. Other treated aspects of living standards consider urbanisation with sanitary systems, income distribution and an application of the Human Development Index.


  • Economic History
  • Human Development Index
  • mortality
  • urbanisation
  • life expectancy
  • income distribution
  • Living standards


  • ISBN: 9780521708395
  • ISBN: 9780521882033

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