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The Interplay Between Selection And Constraints On Adaptive Divergence And Phenotypic Evolution

Författare:
  • Fabrice Eroukhmanoff
Publiceringsår: 2009
Språk: Engelska
Sidor:
Dokumenttyp: Doktorsavhandling
Förlag: Animal Ecology
Ytterligare information: The information about affiliations in this record was updated in December 2015. The record was previously connected to the following departments: Animal Ecology (Closed 2011) (011012001)

Sammanfattning

Under natural or sexual selection, individuals with advantageous traits or

combinations of traits will be more successful than their peers at surviving

and/or reproducing. Provided these traits are heritable, meaning that they

have a genetic basis, the traits combinations which are selected for, will

increase in frequency in the population. When selection is intense and

persistent, adaptive traits may become ubiquitous in the population, and we

may then say that this population has evolved and become adapted.

However, this process might not always occur rapidly. This is because

adaptive evolution occurs only when the individuals of a population are

diverse in their trait combinations and when there is a significant amount of

genetic variation for the trait(s) upon which selection is acting.

However, if the adaptive optimum of a combination of traits is situated in a

direction where there is little variation available, adaptation will be slowed down, and we will say it is constrained. This is precisely what I attempted to study in this thesis. The outcome of the interplay between selection and constraints might lead to evolution, to divergence between populations, and finally to the emergence of new species and biodiversity. By using different statistical techniques used in quantitative genetics or geometric morphometrics, combined with behavioral and breeding experiments, I

tried to draw some conclusions on the role of constraints both in the early

stages of adaptation and divergence (using isopod lake populations as a

model system) and in the latter stages of divergence and speciation (using

damselfly species as model organisms). My main conclusions are that in

the context of strong divergent selection, constraints may be overcome and

adaptation may proceed, provided that gene flow between populations is

restrained.

Disputation

2009-11-20
10:00
Blå Hallen, Ekologihuset, Sölvegatan 37, Lund
  • Andrew Hendry

Nyckelord

  • Ecology
  • Selection
  • Constraints
  • Adaptive Divergence
  • G-matrix
  • Gene Flow.
  • Speciation

Övriga

Published
  • SUFOR
  • Evolutionary Population Biology (Erik Svensson)-lup-obsolete
  • Erik Svensson
  • ISBN: 978-91-7105-304-6

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