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Attityder och delaktighet vid etablering av vindkraft till havs

Publiceringsår: 2010
Språk: Engelska
Sidor: 94
Dokumenttyp: Rapport
Förlag: Swedish Environmental Protection Agency


The political objectives on national and international levels towards a larger
proportion of renewable energy require considerable planning activities on
a local level. These activities inevitably must relate to the local community
and its various groups; their culture, economy, social activities as well as their
views on environmental problems and nature values. This applies to all energy
plants. Wind power has previously been regarded as small-scale in character,
as it has often been built as small groups of windmills. In recent years, wind
power projects on a larger scale have been developed and established, making
wind power more significant for the local community and its inhabitants. The
present report is based on a study of views expressed by locals as regards a
special kind of wind-power plant, namely large-scale, offshore wind power.
The report aims at examining the coordination between different stakeholders;
decision-makers, communities and entrepreneurs concerning two
wind power projects: Lillgrund in The Sound (Öresund), and Utgrunden II in
the Kalmar Strait (Kalmarsund). The report is intended to provide an understanding
of attitudes and perceptions of risks and possibilities of various local
stakeholders in these two cases. Conceptual tools are borrowed from our own
studies as well as other researchers’ previous studies of attitudes, values, and
forms of public participation. Since the study objective has been to seek the
stakeholders’ own formulations of problems and opportunities concerning the
projects, we have used a qualitative research design. Three types of techniques
have been used to gather information: document analysis, field observations
and in-depth interviews. Important to note is that the report is not based on
statistical data of public attitudes.
Positive as well as negative attitudes towards the two wind power projects
have been analyzed in both regions. The positive attitude is mainly based on
ethical values (wind is seen as an environmentally sound energy source that
we should invest in), and for some also on material values (projects can create
jobs and economic growth in the local community). The negative attitude is
partly based on aesthetic values (scenery and local nature values are thought
to be threatened) and a combination of substantive and ethical values (wind
power is seen as unprofitable and inefficient). The analysis shows that there is
need for increased knowledge, both through the provision of facts about economic
and technical conditions of wind power and, as a reversed mediation
of knowledge, by better understanding of local stakeholders’ conceptions of
wind power projects.
Criticism of wind power is largely based on a view that it could not be an
effective way to produce energy, and that it could not possibly bear its own
costs. Thus, wind power entrepreneurs should clearly show environmental
benefits, profitability and efficiency in a specific project draft. Moreover, negative
emotions towards wind power projects are closely associated with aesthetic
values. We were able to note that the scale of the projects had given rise
to greater hesitation and more concern about visual intrusion. It is therefore
essential to take human experience seriously, for example by maintaining a
dialogue around each specific project from an aesthetic point of view in order
to establish what local values and experiences are thought to be threatened,
and how the project might be altered.



  • Sociology (excluding Social Work, Social Psychology and Social Anthropology)


  • ISBN: 978-91-620-6351-1

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