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Obsessive-compulsive disorder, tics and anxiety in 6-year-old twins

  • Derek Bolton (Professor)
  • Fruhling Rijsdijk (Doctor)
  • Thomas O'Connor (Professor)
  • Sean Perrin (Dr)
  • Thalia Eley (Doctor)
Publiceringsår: 2006
Språk: Engelska
Sidor: 39-48
Publikation/Tidskrift/Serie: Psychological Medicine
Volym: 37
Nummer: 1
Dokumenttyp: Artikel
Förlag: Cambridge Journals Online


Background. Previous reports of genetic influences on obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) symptoms have suggested moderate heritability. Family history studies of co-morbidity have found
familial aggregation with tics, especially for early-onset OCD, and familial aggregation with anxiety disorders. Method. Heritability of OCD and familial aggregation of OCD, tics and anxiety disorders were
investigated in a community sample of 6-year-old twins using a two-phase design in which 4662 twin pairs were sampled and 854 pairs were assessed in the second phase by maternal-informant diagnostic interview using DSM-IV criteria. Results. In the multivariate model combined additive genetic and common environmental effects were estimated as 47% for sub-threshold OCD, and the model was unable to distinguish these sources of familial aggregation. There were strong familial aggregations between sub-threshold OCD and tics and between sub-threshold OCD and other anxiety disorders (80% and 97% respectively), although again specific sources could not be distinguished. Conclusions. The findings are consistent with the hypothesis of a tic-related early-onset OCD phenotype, but also with the hypothesis of an anxiety-related early-onset OCD phenotype.



  • Psychology



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