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Cardiovascular responses to cold water immersions of forearm and face and their relationship to apnoea

Publiceringsår: 2000
Språk: Engelska
Sidor: 566-572
Publikation/Tidskrift/Serie: European Journal of Applied Physiology
Volym: 83
Dokumenttyp: Artikel


Apnoea as well as cold stimulation of the face or the extremities elicits marked cardiovascular reflexes in humans. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether forearm immersion in cold water has any effect on the cardiovascular responses to face immersion and apnoea. We recorded cardiovascular responses to coldwater immersions of the forearm and face in 19 (part I) and 23 subjects (part II). The experimental protocol was divided in two parts, each part containing four tests: Il, forearm immersion during eupnoea; I-2, face immersion during eupnoea; I-3, forearm and face immersion during eupnoea; I-4, face immersion during apnoea; II1, apnoea without immersion; II2, forearm immersion during apnoea; II3, face immersion during apnoea; and II4, forearm and face immersion during apnoea. The water temperature was 9-11 degreesC. Cold-water immersion of either the forearm or face was enough to elicit the most pronounced thermoregulatory vasoconstriction during both eupnoea and apnoea. During eupnoea, heart rate responses to forearm immersion (3% increase) and face immersion (9% decrease) were additive during concurrent stimulation (3% decrease): During apnoea, the heart rate responses were not affected by the forearm immersion. The oxygen-conserving diving response seems to dominate over thermoregulatory responses in the threat of asphyxia. During breathing, however, the diving response serves no purpose and does not set thermoregulatory adjustments aside.



  • Physiology
  • diving response
  • tachycardia
  • arterial blood pressure
  • human diving response
  • cold stimulation
  • bradycardia


  • ISSN: 1439-6319

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