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Dietary Supplementation With Phytohemagglutinin In Combination With Alpha-Ketoglutarate Limits The Excretion Of Nitrogen Via Urinary Tract

Publiceringsår: 2008
Språk: Engelska
Sidor: 309-315
Publikation/Tidskrift/Serie: Annals of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine
Volym: 15
Nummer: 2
Dokumenttyp: Artikel i tidskrift
Förlag: Institute of Agricultural Medicine in Lublin, Poland


The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of both phytohaemagglutinin (PHA) alone, and in combination with alpha-ketoglutaric acid (AKG), on nitrogen elimination via the urinary tract as opposed to the gastrointestinal tract of rats. In experiment I, rats were assigned to one of two experimental groups, (1) Control and (2) PHA, whilst in experiment 2, rats were assigned to one of three experimental groups, (1) Control, (2) AKG, and (3) AKG+PHA. AKG was administered via drinking water, while PHA was administered via a stomach tube. The stock solution of crude PHA in 0.9% NaCl, was (20% w/v) in water: 50 mg PHA/ml, 20 ml/kg body wt. Rats were 7 weeks old at the start of the experiments. Significantly lower daily weight gains in the AKG+PHA and PHA groups (p<0.05) were observed compared to the Control and AKG groups. Increased duodenal crypt depth (138%; p<0.05) was noticeable in the AKG+PHA group of Controls; however, there was no significant difference in the thickness of the tunica mucosa. In the AKG+PHA group, the expression of neuropeptide Y (NPY) in the granula of neuronal cells of the submucosal parasympathetic ganglia was noticeable, although no expression was found in goblet cells. Finally, significant reduction in N excretion in urine was observed in the AKG+PHA, compared with the Control groups (p<0.05). It is concluded that a combined PHA and AKG treatment stimulated the small bowel growth via enhanced epithelial turnover, reduced the N excreted in urine and increased the N in faeces.


  • Zoology
  • nitrogen elimination
  • in-
  • alpha-ketoglutaric acid
  • phytohemagglutinin


  • ISSN: 1898-2263

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